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EconPapers FAQ for Archive Maintainers

Setting up and maintaining a RePEc archive

  • Common syntax mistakes
    Spelling...
    Plain spelling mistakes, like Auhtor-Name:, Lenght:, Title : (note the extra space between "Title" and ":") happen. Using preset templates prevents that.
    Use of fields that does not exist in ReDIF
    Our scripts will stumble on fields that are unknown to them. For example, File-Address: does not exist, use File-URL: instead. See the ReDIF documentation for a complete list of available fields.
    Line starts with inappropriate field
    This can happen accidentally, for example with a title or an abstract, when by chance a line starts with a word immediately followed by a colon (":"). This is then interpreted as a field instead of part of the abstract. The solution is to let a space precede this word.
    Bad use of clusters
    Information about an author has to be in one single cluster, before starting with the co-author. the same applies to various other clusters, like File-*, Maintainer-*, Publisher-*, etc. All clusters have to start with the *-Name:, for example Author-Name:, except for File-* that starts with File-URL:.
    Problems with handles
    Each entry must have a handle that is unique. Each handle must contain the proper archive code (3 letters) and the proper series code (6 characters). For example, for a paper it would be RePEc:cre:crefwp:75 or RePEc:wop:turnip:planting3456.
    File-URL: wraps in the address
    File-URL: should not wrap in the middle of the address, no browser can understand that. The address can be put on a separate line, though, as long as it starts with a space.
    Series handles do not match
    The handle for each series is specified in aaaseri.rdf and should have 6 characters (RePEc:aaa:ssssss). The items of this series should be located in a directory with the same 6 character name. Each item handle should contain the same 6 character code.
  • New additions to my archive does not appear in RePEc services

    This is most likely caused by a mirroring problem. Please check the mirroring status of your archive at the RePEc Data Check. You can use the mirrored files link on the Data Check page for you archive to verify that all files in your archive are up to date and mirrored. If they are, the problem is probably caused by syntax errors.

  • Some papers/articles etc from my archive are missing in RePEc services

    This is most likely caused by a syntax error in the templates for the missing items. The RePEc Data Check for your archive should show any syntax errors. You can use the mirrored files link on the Data Check page for you archive to verify that the files for the missing items are up to date and mirrored.

  • Items are missing from the RePEc Author Service

    This is typically because the template is rejected because of a syntax error. See the RePEc Data Check for your archive. If the syntax appears correct, the problem has typically to do with inappropriate information in the Author-Name field. There should be one field for each author, and it should contain only the name. Affiliations belong in Author-Workplace-Name, email addresses in Author-Email. Finally, the names should be specified as First Last or Last, First. Anything else will confuse the RePEc Author Service.

  • How can I have an item automatically added to the author's profile?

    In the Author-* cluster, add a line like this:
    Author-Person: ppp00
    where ppp00 is the short ID that can be found on an author's page on EconPapers or with this lookup tool. Make sure, as always, that Author-Name: is the first element of the cluster.

  • How can I add a new series to my archive?

    This is quite simple. Add another series template to your aaaseri.rdf file, where aaa is your archive code. Make sure that the series handle is the archive handle plus six letters, for example RePEc:aaa:wpaper. Then create a wpaper directory within your archive directory. For more details, see the series template description from the step by step instructions.

  • My working paper series has been selected for inclusion in Econlit. What do I need to do?

    Econlit requires more information than RePEc does. But most of this information can be provided with the regular RePEc fields. Make sure there is: Abstract, Keywords, Classification-JEL, Length, Creation-Date. In addition, Econlit requires that first and last names of all authors are explicitely specified. Thus, after each Author-Name, put the tags Author-Name-First and Author-Name-Last.

  • What should I use to edit the .rdf files?

    The .rdf files are plain text files and should be edited with a text editor such as Notepad. Using a word processor (Word, WordPerfect, etc) will only cause problems.

  • Which character set is used for templates?

    The default character set is Windows-1252 (Western European), this is a superset of ASCII and ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) so these character sets are also accepted by default. Unicode is also acceptable (and necessary with characters unavailable in Western European alphabets). Unicode files must start with a BOM (Byte Order Mark) otherwise Windows-1252 is assumed. The files can be saved in the UTF-8 or UTF-16 encodings.

Server Setup and Management

For RePEc to be able to mirror your archive, some minimal requirements on your server must be fulfilled. These are listed here. In addition, note that ftp based archives are strongly preferred if the archive contains many files. With a web based archive we suggest that you put papers from the same year into a single .rdf file instead of creating a new file for each paper.

See the RePEc Data Check for the current mirroring status of your archive.

  • Directory structure

    There are very strict rules for the directory structure of your archive. The rules ensure that RePEc services can display your data correctly.

    1. The link in the URL: line in your archive template (xxxarch.rdf) must point to a directory on your web or ftp server.
    2. This directory must contain two .rdf files, xxxarch.rdf (with your archive template) and xxxseri.rdf (with your series templates). xxx represents your archive code assigned by RePEc and stated in the Handle: line of your archive template (Handle: RePEc:xxx).
    3. Each series template in xxxseri.rdf must have a unique handle constructed by adding a colon and a six character code to your archive handle (Handle: RePEc:xxx:wpser1, Handle: RePEc:xxx:wpser2 etc).
    4. For each series template there must be one subdirectory with the same name as the six character code from the Handle (e.g. wpser1). This directory holds the .rdf files with templates for all the items in the series (Paper, Article, Book, Chapter or Software templates depending on the type of the series).
    To summarize, the directory structure should thus be like this (where <URL> represents the link in your URL: line):
    <URL>/xxxarch.rdf
    <URL>/xxxseri.rdf
    <URL>/wpser1/redif1.rdf
    <URL>/wpser1/redif2.rdf
    ...
    <URL>/wpser2/redif.rdf
    
  • One file, many files and templates generated from a data base

    For mirroring efficiency (and to reduce the work load of updating RePEc services) three things are important. These issues are particularly important to consider for archives that generate the ReDIF templates from bibliographic data in a data base. Keeping the data in a data base and generating the ReDIF templates and other content automatically is something we encourage, it often leads to better quality data and reduces the time needed for maintaining the archive.

    The three things to consider:

    1. To have a balance between the size and number of files (or "response sets" for dynamically generated ReDIF templates). Each file requires a separate request to be sent in order to determine if the file should be mirrored. This takes time. Having a single large file means only one request is needed, which is good. The downside is that the whole file must be downloaded each time a record is added or updated. RePEc services must also process all the records in order to determine what has changed. Having one file per year of a journal or a working paper series often gives a good balance.
    2. Web based services should support "Conditional GET" requests (with If-Modified-Since). This is how we find out if the file has been updated and should be mirrored. If conditional GET is not supported we must download all files every day and check them for updates. All recent web servers supports conditional GET if you have a standard file based RePEc archives so this is mainly an issue for those who generate the ReDIF templates dynamically. It is then up to the application generating the templates to implement conditional requests properly.
    3. As an alternative to generating the templates dynamically they can be written out to files automatically. If so the files should only be updated if the data has been updated. Writing out all the files whether the data has changed or not defeats the purpose of the conditional GET, forces us to download the files and search through them to find what - if any - has changed.
  • FTP based archives
    The server must allow anonymous FTP
    We are aware that this could be considered a security issue. However, RePEc only requires read access to the server and with a properly configured ftp server this should be just as secure as a web based arcive. (In any case it is far better than handing out user ids and passwords to the relative strangers that run RePEc.)
    The server must generate Unix-style directory listings
    This is typically only an issue with Windows based FTP servers. Using a command line FTP client you should see something like this
    C:\>ftp your.server.here
    Connected to server
    220 Swopec Microsoft FTP Service (Version 5.0).
    User: anonymous
    331 Anonymous access allowed, send identity (e-mail name) as password.
    Password:
    230 Anonymous user logged in.
    ftp> dir
    200 PORT command successful.
    150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
    dr-xr-xr-x   1 owner    group               0 Nov  4  4:41 LogEc
    dr-xr-xr-x   1 owner    group               0 May 29  2003 RePEc
    226 Transfer complete.
    ftp: 132 bytes received in 0,00Seconds 132000,00Kbytes/sec.
    
    Microsoft IIS: IIS 6: Open the properties dialog for the FTP server in the IIS management console. Select Unix directory listing style in the Home Directory tab. Click on OK.
    IIS 7 with FTP Service 7.5 and IIS 8: Go to the FTP server in IIS manager and select FTP Directory Browsing. Select Unix directory listing style and click on Apply.
    (Ask your IT-support staff to make these changes if your are not familiar with server configuration.)
     
  • Web based archives
    All .rdf files must be linked (Directory Browsing)
    The mirroring process works by our robot accessing the URL given in your archive template (xxxarch.rdf) and following the links to all .rdf files that are reachable from this URL. If there is no link to a file our robot will not know that the file exists and the file can not be mirrored. If a link to a file is removed the file will be deleted from our copy of your archive.
    Providing correct links to your .rdf files is thus crucial.
    1. The easiest way to ensure this is to let the server automatically generate a listing of the directory content. In other words to enable directory browsing.
      Apache: Directory browsing is enabled by default. Otherwise Options Indexes in httpd.conf or the per directory .htaccess files enables directory listings. (Ask your IT-support staff to make these changes if your are not familiar with server configuration.)
      Microsoft IIS: IIS 6: Directory browsing is enabled for a directory by opening the properties dialog for the directory in the IIS management console. Select the Directory tab and check Directory browsing. Click on OK.
      IIS 7 and 8: Go to the directory holding your archive in the IIS manager and select Directory Browsing. Click on enable in the right pane to enable directory browsing.
      (Ask your IT-support staff to make these changes if your are not familiar with server configuration.)
    2. If it, for some reason, is not possible to let the server generate a directory listing you must maintain the directory listing yourself by placing a html file in the directory with links to all the .rdf files. This file must then be served automatically by the server when the directory is requested (i.e. when you enter the URL from your archive template in a browser without adding any file name to the URL). With most servers the behaviour of automatically serving a file is controlled by giving the file a special name (which is different for different servers). Common names are default.htm, index.html and welcome.html. Consult your web master to find out the appropriate way to do this on your web server.
    3. As a last resort, if the server configuration does not allow that a file is served automatically when the directory is requested, you can use a file with a special name. Allowed names are default, index, or welcome with one of the suffixes .asp, .aspx, .htm, .html or .php. The name of the file must then be included in the URL: line in your archive template. This is the one and only exception to the rule that the URL: line must point to a directory on your server.
    The URL can not be redirected
    Our robot will only follow links that are under the URL in your archive template (xxxarch.rdf). This prevents the robot from trying to mirror the whole web. One consequence of this is that the robot will not follow redirects. Redirects are typically used when content is moved to a different server or to a new location on the same server. See the Moving an archive topic below if you need to move your archive or your archive has moved.
    The URL must be http://
    Our mirroring software does not support https:// URLs. The purpose of https is primarily to encrypt sensitive data when it is transmitted over the Internet. The data in a RePEc archive is hardly sensitive and will be publicly available in several RePEc services. There is thus no need for https.
    The URL can not be password protected
    The data in a RePEc archive is hardly sensitive and will be publicly available in several RePEc services. There is thus no need to password protect the data as this offer no extra security. Not password protecting the data is, in any case, far better than handing out user ids and passwords to the relative strangers that run RePEc.
    Microsoft IIS 6 and later
    Version 6 and later of IIS will only serve files with known extensions and .rdf is not included in the default list. This results in the server giving a "404 Not Found" error when you follow a link to a .rdf even if the link is correct and the file exists. This is corrected by setting a MIME type for .rdf files.
    IIS 6: Open the properties dialog for the webserver in the IIS management applet and go to the HTTP headers tab. There you click on MIME Types and add the .rdf extension with a MIME type of text/plain.
    IIS 7 and 8: Go to the directory holding your archive in the IIS manager and select MIME Types. Add the .rdf extension with a MIME type of text/plain.
    (Ask your IT-support staff to make these changes if your are not familiar with server configuration.)

    Normally these changes take effect immediately but in some cases it might be necessary to stop and restart the virtual web server or the WWW service.

    If restarting doesn't help Microsoft suggests adding a MIME type for the '*' extension with a MIME type of application/octet-stream. This will allow the server to serve all files and should only be set for the archive directory. Finally, IIS will use the extensions listed under the HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT key in the registry as a last resort so adding a file type for .rdf files in Windows Explorer might resolve the problem.

    User-Agent string
    The RePEc robot software identifies itself with a User-Agent string of the form "remi version/webmirror (URL)" indicating the current version of the robot, which software the robot is based on and a URL to the RePEc service doing the mirroring. For EconPapers this is as of this writing "remi 2.0/webmirror (http://econpapers.repec.org)". If you check your web server logs you will find that several RePEc services are mirroring your data. They all need to do this. The robot should, however, be quite well behaved. Please let us know () if you are experiencing problems.
    Please note that the only significant part in the user agent string is "remi", all other parts are subject to change.
  • Changing archive locations
    Moving an archive
    The following procedure should be used when moving an archive:
    1. Edit your archive template (xxxarch.rdf) and change the URL line to indicate the new location of the archive
    2. Copy all the files, keeping the directory structure intact, to the new location.
    3. Wait a day or two for us to pick up the change. Check that we have picked up the change and that everything is OK by going the to the RePEc Data Check page for your archive and viewing our copy of the archive template. You can delete the files from the old location if the URL line reflects the new location and no mirroring problems are indicated.
    4. Contact if there are any problems.
    The archive has moved and does not mirror anymore
    Edit the archive template (xxxarch.rdf) and update the URL line to reflect the new location. If possible copy the edited archive template to the old location. The change should then be picked within a day or two.
    Contact if the change isn't picked up or it is not possible to copy the file to the old location.
  • It is impossible for us to set up a server that complies with RePEc mirroring requirements. Is all hope lost?
    No. If you only maintain working paper series, you can join the RePEc Input Service.

Error Messages in the Mirroring Logs

This is a list of the most common error messages in the mirroring logs. Contact if an errror message is unclear or missing from this list.
  • HTTP error messages (web based archives)
    Prior to October 8, 2014 the w3mir mirroring software was used. The w3mir error messages are listed below.

    The general format of the lines in the log file is
    YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS: message
    giving the (local) date and time. A message starting with 'ERROR' indicates an error in the mirroring process.
    The exact error message can vary, the significant part is the numeric code or the text in bold face.

    ERROR: '300 Multiple Choices' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    There are several alternative resources available for this URL and our mirroring software has no idea which one to choose. There should only be one version of each .rdf file so this should never happen. Some servers try to correct for typos in links by offering a choice between files with similar names. Please check that the link in the referring page is correct.
    ERROR: '301 Moved Permanently' some URL redirected to some other URL, referred from a URL (can be blank)
    ERROR: '302 Found' some URL redirected to some other URL, referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Requests for files in your archive are redirected to a different location, presumably because your server has been reorganized. While this works with normal browsers it does not work with our mirroring software. Most likely this error message is given for the URL in your xxxarch.rdf file.
    See The URL can not be redirected and The archive has moved above.
    Note that this is some times a redirection to an error page. This is an incredibly vile practice which makes the web much less useful. Web servers should send the appropriate error code so that the correct action can be taken programmatically.
    ERROR: '401 Unauthorized' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Your archive is password protected. Ask your IT support staff to remove the password protection. This can also be caused by incorrect permission settings on some or all of the files in the archive.
    ERROR: '403 Forbidden' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Your server is refusing to send us the requested file. In almost all cases this is a directory URL meaning that the server is not set up to send us the directory listing we need in order to mirror the files. You need to enable directory browsing or create a html file with links to all the .rdf files. This could also be a issue with the permission settins on the particular file
    ERROR: '404 Not Found' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    The file can not be found on the server. If the URL is the same as the archive URL given first in the log file it is likely that the whole archive is missing from the server. Please reinstate the files. (We might have a backup of your data if you have lost the files, contact if this is the case.) Changes to the structure of your web server is another likely source of this error. See the archive has moved topic.
    If the error occurs for a single .rdf file this means the link in the referring page is bad. Please correct the link.
    If the error occurrs for all .rdf files you are likely running IIS 6 or later and need to configure a MIME type for .rdf files.
    ERROR: '500 cant connect to your server (10060)' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    ERROR: '500 cant connect to your server (10061)' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Your server failed to respond to the connection request. 10060 indicates that the request timed out, 10061 that the request was refused by your server. Please consult your IT support staff.
    Likely causes includes that your web server is down and that access is blocked by a firewall. Please check that you can access the server from both inside and outside your local network and that the web server or local firewall is not configured to block specific IP adresses or user agents. Contact if the server is live and well and these error messages persists.
    ERROR: '500 cant connect to your server (Bad hostname)' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    The DNS lookup for your servers hostname failed. Please consult your IT support staff.
    ERROR: '500 read timeout' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Your server is very slow when sending back the file to us. Thís could be a temporary issue but should be investigated if the problem persists.
    ERROR: '500 Internal server error' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Something went wrong with your server when it tried to fulfill the request. Please consult your IT support staff.
    ERROR: '500 Server closed connection without sending any data back' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Something went wrong with your server when it tried to fulfill the request or it is configured to block certain accesses. Please consult your IT support staff.
    ERROR: '500 Status read failed: An existing connection was forcibly closed by the remote host.' when getting some URL referred from a URL (can be blank)
    Something went wrong with your server when it tried to fulfill the request or it is configured to block certain accesses. Please consult your IT support staff.
    Error messages without a numeric HTTP response code mostly indicate issues with saving the mirrored files on the EconPapers server. Some of these errors can still be caused by a problem with the configuration of your server or the way you link to directories.
    ERROR: Cannot create directory directory name, file in the way
    ERROR: Cannot save file name, directory in the way
    The mirroring software failed to correctly determine if a link leads to a directory or a file. This most likely caused by a link to a directory that does not end with a slash (/).
    remi: web timed out (killed) after X seconds
    The connection to your server is extremely slow or timed out in a way not detected by our robot. This is typically a temporary problem but should be investigated if it persists. Please see the one file, many files topic, in particular the first point, if your archive contains a large number of .rdf files.
  • Old HTTP error messages (before October 8, 2014)
    These are error messages from the w3mir mirroring software used before October 8, 2014.
    w3mir: index.html: 99 Host lookup failure
    The DNS lookup for your server failed. This could be a temporary problem but it is quite likely that the server indicated in the archive template (xxxarch.rdf) no longer exists or has changed name. See The archive has moved above.
    w3mir: filename 300 Multiple Choices
    There are several alternative resources available for this URL and our mirroring software has no idea which one to choose. There should only be one version of each .rdf file so this should never happen. Some servers try to correct for typos in links by offering a choice between files with similar names. Please check that the link is correct.
    w3mir: index.html =>> http://some.server/some/location/, don't want it
    w3mir: Warning: http://some.server/some/location/ is marked as -302.
    Your archive directory is being redirected to a different location, presumably because your server has been reorganized. While this works with normal browsers it does not work with our mirroring software. See The URL can not be redirected and The archive has moved above.
    Note that this is some times a redirection to an error page. This is an incredibly vile practice which makes the web much less useful. Web servers should send the appropriate error code so that the correct action can be taken programmatically.
    w3mir: filename 401 Unauthorized
    Your archive is password protected. Ask your IT support staff to remove the password protection. This can also be caused by incorrect permission settings on some or all of the files in the archive.
    w3mir: filename 403 Access Denied
    Your server is refusing to send us the requested file. In almost all cases the filename is index.html meaning that the server is not set up to send us the directory listing we need in order to mirror the files. You need to enable directory browsing or create a html file with links to all the .rdf files.
    w3mir: filename 404 Not Found
    The file can not be found on the server. If the filename is index.html it is likely that the whole archive is missing from the server. Please reinstate the files. (We might have a backup of your data if you have lost the files, contact if this is the case.) Changes to the structure of your web server is another likely source of this error. See the archive has moved topic.
    If the error occurs for a single .rdf file this means the link is bad. Please correct the link.
    If the error occurrs for all .rdf files you are likely running IIS 6 or later and need to configure a MIME type for .rdf files.
    w3mir: filename 500 Server Error
    Your server was unable to fulfill the request for this resource. Please consult your IT support staff.
    w3mir: filename: A connection attempt failed because the connected party did not properly respond after a period of time...
    We are unable to connect to your server. This is hopefully temporary but should be investigated if the problem persists. Likely causes includes that your web server is down and that access is blocked by a firewall. Please check that you can access the server from both inside and outside your local network and that the web server or local firewall is not configured to block specific IP adresses. Contact if the server is live and well and these error messages persists.
    w3mir: filename, authorization needed: type of authentication requested
    Your archive is password protected. Ask your IT support staff to remove the password protection. This can also be caused by incorrect permission settings on some or all of the files in the archive.
    w3mir: filename: No connection could be made because the target machine actively refused it.
    You server does not want to talk to us. This is hopefully temporary but should be investigated if the problem persists. Likely causes includes that your web server is down and that access is blocked by a firewall. Please check that you can access the server from both inside and outside your local network and that the web server or local firewall is not configured to block specific IP adresses. Contact if the server is live and well and these error messages persists.
    w3mir: directory namerm_rf(directory name); at c:\perl\bin\w3mir4remi.pl line nnnn.
    The most likely cause of this error message is that a link to a series directory did not include a trailing slash (/). With some web servers this causes our mirroring software to believe that the link is to a file and this causes problem when saving the data. It is always good practice to include the trailing slash when linking to the series directories even if mirroring will work fine without it in most cases.
    w3mir: filenamew3mir: Server indicated authentication failure but gave no www-authenticate reply
    Your archive is password protected but your server didn't even bother to ask for the password. Ask your IT support staff to remove the password protection. This can also be caused by incorrect permission settings on some or all of the files in the archive.
    w3mir: Some error occured, conservative file removal
    The connection to your server was closed unexpectedly and the mirroring process could not be completed. This is typically a temporary problem. It should be investigated if it persists.
    remi: w3mir timed out (killed) after X seconds
    The connection to your server is extremely slow or timed out in a way not detected by our robot. This is typically a temporary problem but should be investigated if it persists. Please see the one file, many files topic, in particular the first point, if your archive contains a large number of .rdf files.
     
  • FTP error messages
    Cannot login, skipping package
    Your FTP server does not allow anonymous FTP. Anonymous FTP is required for the mirroring to work.
    Cannot connect, skipping package
    Your FTP server is not responding when we try to connect to it or the DNS-lookup for the server fails. This could be a temporary problem but should be investigated if it persists for more than a few days.
    Cannot get remote directory details (directory_name)
    This might be a temporary problem, the connection with your server was lost for some reason.
    The problem should be investigated if it persists. The most likely cause for persistent problems is that the archive directory is missing from the server. Please reinstate the directory and the .rdf files. (We might have a backup of your data if you have lost the files, contact if this is the case.)
    Cannot get remote directory listing because: 150 some more details
    This might be a temporary problem, the connection with your server was lost for some reason.
    The problem should be investigated if it persists. The most likely cause for persistent problems is that your ftp server is using a non-standard data port and the transmission of data from your server is being blocked by a firewall. This behaviour violates the standard defining FTP transactions (see section 3.2 and 3.3 of RFC 959) and should be avoided. Please configure your ftp server to behave in a standards compliant way. (We are aware that this non-standard behaviour is intended to enhance security. If you care about security you should simply refuse to establish a data connection without a preceeding PASV (and say so in the response) or at a minimum indicate that a non-standard port is used in the response.)
    No files to transter
    This is, strictly speaking, not an error message but indicates a mirroring problem if you have .rdf files in your archive and there are no files mirrored to EconPapers (check the "mirrored files" link on the check page for your archive).
    This condition is caused by our mirroring software not being able to read or interpret the directory listings generated by your server. Likely causes are that the anonymous user does not have read access to the directory or that there is a problem with the way directory listings are generated (particularly common with Microsofts ftp server).

Providing data to get the most out of EconPapers and other RePEc services

  • First of all, provide as much data on each paper as possible. Abstract, key words, JEL-codes, the date the paper was written. This will increase the exposure for your papers and makes it more likely that they are found when people search in EconPapers and other RePEc services.
  • For working papers, use the Number field to provide the working paper number. This makes it easier for people to reference the paper. The working paper number is also the basis for the sorted list of papers in a series provided by EconPapers.
    • EconPapers must fall back on other information and may end up sorting in a strange order if the working paper number is missing for some papers or not provided in a consistent format (e.g. nn or yyyy-nn).
    • The working paper number is often encoded in the Handle field and EconPapers tries to parse the handle if the number is missing for some papers.
    • If EconPapers fails to parse the handle the sort will be based on the Creation-Date or Revision-Date fields if there is a date field for each paper.
    • If all else fails EconPapers will do a character based sort on the handle.
  • For journal articles, use the Year, Volume, Issue and Pages fields if applicable. This makes it easier for people to reference the paper. This informatione is also the basis for the grouped and sorted sorted list of articles in a journal provided by EconPapers.
    • EconPapers will use as much as possible of this information. Pages are sorted within issues and issues within volumes or years.
    • Pages are sorted within years or volumes if the issue information is missing for some articles.
    • The sort within issue, year or volume is based on the Handle field if pages is missing for some articles.
    • The sort is based on the handle if year, volume and issue is missing.
  • IDEAS tries to list items in chronological order based on the date in the template. Use the Creation-Date date field for for papers and software components and the Year field for articles, books and chapters to ensure a proper sort order.
  • Never change the Handle of an item. The handle is a persistent and unique identifier for items in the RePEc data base. Changing handles causes the RePEc Author Service and LogEc to loose track of the item.
  • Consider using the Author-Name-Last and Author-Name-First fields. This makes proper parsing of author names much easier and is one of the requirements for inclusion in the EconLit data base.
 
Page updated 2014-10-18