Elephant foot yam is traditionally cultivated on commercial scales in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and West Bengal. The statistics on area, production and yield of this crop are not available in the literature and this paper has estimated the cost of cultivation, farm income measures and resource-use efficiency of the crop in these states, except West Bengal. The study has indicated the gross cost of cultivation as Rs 1,73,105, Rs 93,450 and Rs 1,68,032 per ha and the benefit-cost ratios as 1.38, 1.38 and 1.50 for elephant foot yam cultivation in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, respectively. The study has revealed excessive use of all NPK fertilizers in Kerala, indicating the need for rationalization in use of these inputs, while there is a scope for increase in the use of these inputs, except nitrogenous fertilizers, in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Expenditures on manures in Tamil Nadu and hired human labour in Kerala can be enhanced without any adverse effect on the productivity of the crop. The analysis has revealed the need for reorganization of farm resources so as to maximize the returns on elephant foot yam farms under different production systems in India.