The article addresses an economic analysis of the households and firms location choices. The standard model of urban economics offers an intelligibility framework of the households? trade-off. But some hypothesis as the homogeneity of network, isotropy of space and exogenous location of firm in the center are strong and are exceeded with new models. Empirical tests of the predictions got deal us to use the spatial econometrics tools. The results confirm the theoretical results and identify the explanatory factors of French urban patterns for the last four censuses of population. Classification JEL : R14, R2, C29.