A strand of theoretical and empirical evidence in the literature suggests non-linearity in the output-inflation relationship, viz. a non-linear Phillips curve. We develop a VAR model of output, inflation, and terms of trade augmented with logistic smooth transition autoregression specifications. Empirically, the model captures non-linear features present in the data. Output costs of reducing inflation vary, depending on the economy, size of inflation change, and whether policy makers seek to disinflate or prevent inflation from rising. Thus, inferences based on the conventional linear Phillips curve may provide misleading signals about the cost of lowering inflation and the appropriate policy stance.
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