I discuss the Dutch maritime and colonial empire in South East Asia (1600 1950) and its literature. Focusing in particular on its absence from most postcolonial debate today, my aim here is to explore why and how this missing Dutch empire and its literature matter to postcolonial theory. I will consider a range of recent reactions to the 19th-century Dutch author Multatuli and his classic novel Max Havelaar or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company (1860). The Indonesian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, for example, has expressed the view that it was this novel that put an end to colonialism . I will also try and assess the continuing relevance of Multatuli s Max Havelaar, considering in particular the issues of justice and humanity raised by this novel about the human cost of coffee production.