Large areas of vineyards have been established in recent years in arid region of northwest China, despite limited water resources. Water to support these vineyards is mainly supplied by irrigation. Accurate estimation of vineyard evapotranspiration (ET) can provide a scientific basis for developing irrigation management. Transpiration and soil evaporation, as two main components of ET, were measured separately in a vineyard in this region by heat balance sap flow system and micro-lysimeters during the growing season of 2009. Diurnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow and its environmental controls were analyzed. Daily sap flow rate (SRl) increased linearly with solar radiation (Rs), but showed an exponential increase to its maximum curve as a function of vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Residuals of the two regressions both depended on volumetric soil water content to a depth of 1.0Â m (VWC). VWC also significantly influenced SRl. The relationship of them could be expressed by a piecewise regression with the turnover point of VWCÂ =Â 0.188Â cm3Â cm-3, which was ~60% of the field capacity. Conversely, soil evaporation (Es) increased exponentially with VWC. Thus, we recommended keeping VWC in such vineyards slightly above ~60% of the field capacity to maintain transpiration while reducing soil evaporation. Vineyard transpiration (Ts) was scaled from sap flow by using leaf area (Al) as it explained 60% of the spatial variability of sap flow. Vine transpiration was 202.0Â mm during the period from April 28 to October 5; while that of Es was 181.0Â mm. The sum of these two components was very close to ET estimated by the Bowen ratio energy balance method (386.9Â mm), demonstrating the applicability of sap flow for measuring grape water use in this region.