Food traceability systems allow the consumers or administrative authorities to trace the origins or ingredients of food products. Given the expressed concerns for food safety, the promotion of food traceability systems has occurred in many countries. Although a considerable body of literature has examined the consumer responses in regard to food traceability, relatively little is known about the producers' adoption behaviors. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper investigates Taiwanese farmers' participation decision in relation to the Taiwan Agriculture and Food Traceability (TAFT) program; special attention is paid to understanding the roles of the farmers' program awareness and pesticide residue testing adoption in regard to TAFT participation. Using a national representative sample of the fruit and vegetable farmers in Taiwan, the results indicate that program awareness and pesticide residue testing adoption are the significant determinants of TAFT participation. An awareness of the government's promotion of the TAFT program and adoption of pesticide residue testing has significantly reduced TAFT non-participation by 28.2% and 21.9% points, respectively.