There are at least 607 thousand households in the Brazilian Amazon that need to be attended with some form of regular electricity service. These households are not attended by the electricity sector through its electricity distribution companies and most of them have some form of precarious decentralized electricity generation that is not registered or regulated in the institutional framework. Diverse initiatives were taken by Brazilian government to attend these household through alternatives that relied on locally available renewable energy. This paper accesses this initiatives of rural electrification in the Brazilian Amazon. First an overview of the problems of rural electricity are discussed and its specificities in the Brazilian Amazon. Then the Brazilian institutional framework that organizes the decentralized electricity generation is described with its various limitations. The diverse initiatives undertaken to attend the rural communities in the Amazon since the 1990s are described, as well as how these initiatives are linked to the policies for rural electrification. The results shows that it can be inferred that sole market mechanisms are not sufficient to guarantee economic sustainability of these projects. This can be one of the reasons why traditional electricity distribution companies showed the lack of interest in promoting rural electrification with other means than grid extension. The most successful projects had financed efforts to integrate the generation of electricity into local development initiatives in order to guarantee sustainability and used substantial part of funding for local mobilization and organization. It needs a paradigm chance by treating these initiatives as local development initiatives and promoting alternative ways for its implementation through partnership between local new actors in the electricity sector and government and implementing policy on a local municipal level.