This paper focuses on inter-district variation in agriculture among the 13 undivided districts of Orissa. This paper is divided into three major studies: The first study relates to disparities in various indicators of economic development such as Per Capita Income (PCI), net irrigated area as percentage of net area sown, productivity per hectare, cropping intensity, distribution of fertilizer per thousand hectares of gross cropped area. The second observation relates to variation of district income such as Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP), Net District Domestic Product (NDDP), and PCI, etc. The third observation relates to variation in equal distribution of land holdings. It explains the importance of land reforms for the benefit of marginal and small farmers.