This paper explores the effect of religious observance and affiliation to the dominant religion (Catholicism) on trust in institutions and toward others, and market attitudes. The analysis is performed using a Latin American database of 20,000 respondents from 2004 by means of ordered probit models. The most interesting results are:(i) "Trust toward others is positively correlated with both religious observance" and "Catholic affiliation" (and "practice"). (ii) There is a "positive correlation between trust in the government, in the police, in the armed forces, in the judiciary and in the banking system and religious practice" in general. Identical positive findings are obtained for "Catholic affiliation" and "practice", although they may be affected by a majority effect. Moreover, there is no evidence to support the hypotheses of a negative effect of religion on social capital. Copyright (c) 2009 The Ohio State University.