The article contains a general comparative study of four strategies of social and economic development: "Inertia", "Renter", "Mobilization", and "Modernization". The context for comparison is explanation of correlation between adaptive features of Russias contemporary economic system and particularities of the mentioned strategies with corresponding ways of managing economic development problems. The comparison is based on description of strategies essence, ways and tools to achieve results. Perspectives of achieving strategic purposes as well as expected results of implementation of each strategy are shown. Special comparative study of four strategies on the base of development of competitive markets as one of strategic aims of the Russian government is presented.