The Payback Framework, originally developed to examine the ‘impact’ or ‘payback’ of health services research, is explained. The Payback Framework is a research tool used to facilitate data collection and cross-case analysis by providing a common structure and so ensuring cognate information is recorded. It consists of a logic model representation of the complete research process, and a series of categories to classify the individual paybacks from research. Its multi-dimensional categorisation of benefits from research starts with more traditional academic benefits of knowledge production and research capacity-building, and then extends to wider benefits to society. Copyright , Beech Tree Publishing.