The paper deals with temporary employment on the Russian labour market. The main focus is the gender differences of determinants for being temporary employed in Russia. The puzzle here is that Russia is completely different from European countries where women are most likely to have temporary work. The general question for the paper is why? The household survey of NOBUS (held in 2003 by State statistical centre with World Bank participation) is used to answer the question. The results of the survey prove that gender differences for the probability of temporary employment do exist and the main factors that explain these differences are education and marital status.