[paper in French] In the context of increasing in average body mass in Europe and of the proliferation of discourse on weight and on its control, studying diet is essential to understand both the relationship of individuals to their weight and the stakes of current public policies. This article aims to study diets in Europe to see if the differences in weight across Europe are linked to differences in eating and in diets. Our study shows that France occupies a very special position because of the weakness of the standard of ideal weight and that gender is an essential, but often overlooked dimension of weight in Europe. Underweight appears a very devalued situation for men, like the overweight for women. Men try to gain weight more often than women.