[paper in French] The purpose of this article is to study the ways people understand the food advice from the French National Nutrition Health Program. It aims at highlighting the various conceptions of dietetic, and the related norms, from one social class to another. Analysis of the categories that the individuals are using to interpret health education (“not too fat, too sweetened, too salted”, etc.) emphasizes the structures and the framework of food. The study is based on the analysis of food messages towards children. It finds out how parents (from four socially distinct elementary schools) deal with those messages. This article presents two main results: the ratio weight/health/dietetic, and the comprehension of health education’s advice.