The Reserve Bank has completed its second study of consumers' use of payment instruments. The study indicates that cash remains the most common form of payment by consumers. It is used extensively in situations where average payment values are low and where quick transaction times are preferred. Nonetheless, cash use as a share of total payments has declined, falling as a share of both the number and value of payments. Two important factors contributing to this decline are the substitution of cards for cash use, particularly for low-value payments, and the increasing adoption of online payments.