Turkey featured a somewhat paradoxical evolution in income distribution between 1994 and 2005. During 1994-2002 (marked by the 2000-2001 financial crisis), growth was pro-poor in the sense that the income of the poor decreased less than the income of the well-off. Between 2002 and 2005, the Turkish economy rebounded, but growth was mainly beneficial to the middle class. Between 1994 and 2005, growth was pro-poor again. However, this does not mean that the well-being of the poor actually increased, while their expenditure on basic goods and services did increase, notably on education. These changes are hard to explain as they result from many different factors, namely changes in the social protection system, in the assistance to the poor, but also low job creation in the formal sector.