Among Africaâ€™s problems, chronic poverty and poor health stand out. Traditional development thinking has maintained that health improvements are a consequence of income growth. But new evidence shows that investing in health, with the aid of the international community, could make a big difference in Africaâ€™s economic prospects. Moreover, some feasible, low-cost interventions would likely have high returns. The pathways by which health can make a difference economically include those based on the heightened effectiveness of labor, increased savings, more effective educational investments, and demographic change.