Regarding the forest sector, in a context of substantial areas of denuded and bare lands (initially around 25% of Vietnam area), forestry rehabilitation and development plans have been continuously on the focus in Vietnam since the end of the war. The first projects were planned under an existing broader program, the United Nations World Food program (1975-200). These projects essentially concerned agro-forestry and demonstrations trials. Vietnam started its economic renovation policy (known as “Doi Moi”) in 1986 with a series of major economic programs and industrial development plans1. Among them, the program 327 (1993-1998) was initially planning substantial effort to rehabilitate forest degraded lands. It soon shifted to focus on forest protection in critical zones. Finally, the program 661 (1998-2010), also known as “Five million hectares reforestation program” (5MHRP), really put the emphasis on a substantial increment of the nation’s forest areas. By the end of this program, the national forests are expected to cover more than 14 million hectares. The program includes both protection of existing forests and reforestation. Initially, Most of the production plantations were planned to be established with fast growing exogenous species (i.e. eucalyptus). Now, the government is promoting the development of indigenous species as much as possible.