Economy of Xinjiang (China) and economy of West Siberia (Russia) have certain similarity (can be referred to the type of midland economy and are characterized by relatively common economic structure) and differences (industrial profiles, level and conditions of economy development, ethnographic conditions). Both regions are characterized by remoteness from the centers of economic activity of their countries. They are rich with mineral and power resources (however, kinds of mineral resources, an environment of these regions are various). Thus, these regions possess rather unfavorable environment. In connection with noted similarity and differences the trade and economic exchange and cooperation between two regions become actual. In 2004 the trade turnover between Xinjiang and Russia made 223 million US dollars, that was equal to 6.8 % of the trade turnover of that year between Xinjiang and Kazakhstan. Trade turnover of Xinjiang made only about 1 % of total trade volume between China and Russia. Other 99 % were carried out through the Northeast of China that reflects serious imbalance in trade between China and Russia in latitudinal direction. The reason of the pointed problem is the absence of the direct way between Northwest region of China and Russia till now. Creation of the direct corridor Xinjiang –Siberia will considerably reduce transportation distance between Northwest China and Russia and will remove the difficulties arising because of transit through the third country and will lower the transportation cost price. Along with it, the mentioned corridor will create the competitive situation favoring to the development of direct trade between China and Russia and reduce the cost price of transportation through The Second Eurasian Continental Way. Possibilities of cooperation enhancing between two regions now are at a research stage. It is necessary to accelerate the consideration by Chinese and Russian governments the building of a transboundary direct corridor between Xinjiang and West Siberia.