This study examined the contribution of gender with special emphasis on women farmers towards rural agriculture as well as factors constraining access to rural agricultural production and consequently household food security in Western Province of Kenya. Data were collected from a total of 161 women farmers, 32 women groups as well as 254 individual males farmers engaged in small-scale production of various food crops in Western Province in Kenya for a period of 1 year. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews administered to the sampled individual farmers and women groups. Outputs from individual farm productions were used as a measure of agriculture production. Comparisons were made between exclusively female owned farms, women groups and male farms. Results indicated that farms owned exclusively by women did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in agriculture production from those owned by males. Farms owned by women groups performed much better and had higher unit productions. Further results indicated that women had more obstacles constraining their productivity in rural agriculture. 12 out of the 18 factors studied fitted the logistic regression model as constraints for women in agricultural production compared to only five factors constraining men. This study demonstrated that women could provide many yardsticks to unlocking agricultural production in Kenya, which is currently erroneously left to the domains of men. The study recommends adoption of strategies such as formation of women cooperatives and education to change the customary laws curtailing women roles in economic development.