The study examined the profitability and resources-use efficiency of millet/cowpea mixed farmers production in Niger state Nigeria. The primary data for the study was obtained using structured questionnaire administered to 80 randomly sampled farmers in Kotangora Local Government Area of Niger State. Farm budgeting technique and exponential production function were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the estimated gross margin, net farm income, gross ratio, operating ratio and returns on investment are N57,542.42 per hectare, N54,240.40 per hectare, 0.37, 0.31 and 2.15. The regression result shows that seed and family labour were statistically significant at 1% level of probability, while farm size and hired labour were statistically significant at 5% level of probability. The allocative efficiency results show that seeds, family labour and agrochemicals were under-utilized. Farm size and hired labour were over-utilized. Efficiency and productivity could be improved if the farmers use more seed, family labour, agrochemicals, less of hired labour and land.