The study assessed the effect of improved technology on land productivity of smallholder cocoa farmers in Ashanti Region, Ghana. With data from 366 smallholders cocoa farmers productivity was shown to be linearly related to and the use of improved cocoa technology in the study area. Both the decision to use improved technologies and the proportion of cocoa land allocated to cocoa production are all significant determinants of increased productivity. In addition, farm level factors characteristics as well as idiosyncrasies are shown to affect productivity. These including age, household size, participation in programs related to cocoa production, access to virgin lands, size of cocoa farm, labour resource use and nativity affect productivity at various levels of significance. Strategies to improve the productivity of the smallholder cocoa farmers must include the promotion of improved cocoa technologies as it evidently enhances productivity of the smallholders. These must not come alone but with appropriate training on their use.