This paper develops a new measure of total factor productivity growth in agricultural production which incorporates environmental effects. The new measure is called the Total Factor Nutrient-Orientated Productivity (TFNP) Index, and incorporates a materials balance condition. TFNP measures changes in nutrient-orientated efficiency and can be decomposed into efficiency change (EC), technological change (TC) and nutrient-orientated technological change (NTC) components. An empirical analysis, involving country-level data from OECD countries during 1990-2003, is provided using DEA methods. Estimates of mean technical and nutrient-orientated efficiency are 0.798 and 0.526, respectively. Estimated mean TFNP growth is 1.5% per year, with nutrient-orientated technological progress contributing 0.8%.