This volume contains background papers that contributed to discussions between Polish and Dutch agricultural policy makers, held in Warsaw (16-17 July, 2002) and in The Hague (26-27 September, 2002). These meetings took place in the context of the Utrecht Conference in which bilateral meetings on various policy issues are organised. The papers give insights in the agricultural and rural development in both countries and point at the main problems at stake. Further, the contributions discuss the past and present agricultural and rural policies and show to what extent these policies help(ed) to tackle the major problems of the agricultural sector and rural areas. Discussions took place on various issues such as farm retirement and direct payment schemes, competitiveness of the sector and the future developments of the Common Agricultural Policy in an enlarged European Union.