Soil fertility is considered as the most important constraint to increase maize production in Nepal. Although farmers generally apply farmyard manure available on their farms, there is increasing trend towards the use of fertilizers that is likely to augment maize production in Nepal. This study was carried out to identify the influence of socio-economic factors of the improved maize adopters on the decision to adopt fertilizers in the Chitwan district of Nepal, using the survey data collected from 117 farm households in May-June 2005. The impact of age, education, family size, farm size, extension service, credit use, manure application, off-farm income and timely irrigation availability on the adoption of fertilizers were analyzed using the Tobit regression model. The major factors having positive influence on use of fertilizer in maize production were found to be family size, farm size, credit use, off-farm income and irrigation availability. There is need of adequate irrigation facility and assured credit availability to the farmers in the study area. Further, creation of off-farm activities is crucial to obtain additional household income to fulfill cash requirements required for investment in improved technologies. The present study emphasize the provision of technical support via training, seminars, field demonstrations to increase the adoption of fertilizers to improve maize productivity and consequent food security in Nepal.