There is widespread support from Government, media and consumers for local food networks. The profile of local food buyers and their expectations has been explored and we have some knowledge of its social, economic and environmental contribution. This research contributes by exploring the structure and scope of local food activities. This paper reports on a one year scoping study that examined local food within two contrasting countries, England and Australia. It used a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders to identify the business opportunities that exist in this sector. In conclusion there are many more local food activities in England than in Australia. Further, at a national level in both countries it remains fragmented and confused. However, at a local level there are many successful businesses - farmers markets are the most successful business model in England and Australia, with box schemes also working well in England. The research priorities are to develop a clearer definition of local food as well as exploring the possibility of creating some form of consumer assurance for the ‘localness’ of foods.