Introduction: A conference titled Bioterrorism and Food Security: Issues and Challenges was held on October 28 and 29, 2002 at the Ramada Plaza Suites and Conference Center in Fargo, North Dakota. The conference was organized by the Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies and the Great Plains Institute of Food Safety, North Dakota State University. Sponsors of the conference were the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics. Speakers included U.S. Senator Byron Dorgan, U.S. Representative Earl Pomeroy, Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple, government officials, and members of academia and private industry. The purpose of this conference was to address emerging issues related to bioterrorism and food security affecting U.S. agricultural production, processing, and trade, and to discuss strategies to prevent intentional contamination and attacks on U.S. agriculture. This volume summarizes the major issues and findings discussed by each of the conference speakers.