The Free State agricultural sector is a dynamic and livelihood sustainable sector. Approximately 4.2% of the Free State value added gross domestic product comes through agriculture and 2.3% of the population in the Free State is working in this sector. There is thus a need for macro-economic research in order to investigate potential and current challenges and opportunities. This paper examines several of these challenges namely demographic compositions, unemployment, income distribution, poverty and inequality. It will provide results from the Labour Force Surveys from 2000 until 2007 with a more in-depth look into 2007. Population and labour force statistics provide the foundation for further analysis. This paper indicates that unemployment is being dominated by the African individuals and that employment in the Free State agricultural sector is on a decreasing trend. It shows further that income distribution is highly skewed which leads to high levels of poverty and inequality. Agricultural incomes are lowest across all races compared to non-agricultural incomes except for the White farmers/farm workers who earn more than their counterparts in other sectors. Poverty is extremely high for African workers in the Free State agricultural sector and although it decreased since 2000, it showed an increase in 2007. One of the principal concerns is that of inequality. It shows no improvement since 2000 with a high in-between race inequality and lower within race inequality in the Free State agricultural sector. Throughout the report the Free State agricultural sector is compared to the non-agricultural sector, Free State overall and South Africa for a better understanding of the Free State agricultural sector’s position. This report indicates that the Free State agricultural sector could benefit from intervention and support to correct the present state of decreasing employment, low income, and high poverty and inequality levels.