The Rio Grande do Sul presented along the century XX a path of private capitalist development, in comparison with other States of the country. However, your internal logic of regional development felt with the amplification of economical inequalities, providing to the State the consolidation of two areas, an industrialized - North Half - and other not - South Half. It is believed that the evolution of the regional inequalities has roots historical, and above all institutional, could be better understood by approaches institucionalist and new-schumpeterian. One of the characteristics principal of the approaches institucionalist and new-schumpeterian is the abandonment of the economical agents' limitless rationality. Like this, two theories attest so that each country, or regions, it can present a several institutional head office of other, built along the times, above all for the process of the local actors' learning.