This paper proposes that globalization, through the enlargement of the market, can influence both specialization and the equilibrium firm size. By re-introducing two factors of production into the muchutilized Dixit-Stiglitz-Ethier framework, I show that gains from specialization depend only on capital, while gains from increasing firm size face a trade-off between labor and capital as the size of the market expands. If the markup that the firms charge is instead endogenously determined, I demonstrate how firms can gain from both internal and external economies as globalization occurs if the number of firms stays under a specified threshold. The paper also shows that opening up to free trade in intermediate inputs and a final consumption good will have relative endowments determining the direction of trade across the stages of production. The model predicts that a relatively capital-abundant country will be the importer of the final good and the net exporter of intermediate components. Compared to autarky, trade will enhance specialization and firm size in the capital-abundant country and diminish both in the laborabundant country. Welfare can either increase or decrease as a result of trade.