The present paper aims to provide the reasons for this failure and contends that EU and Russian interests and aspirations in ESDP, some common security threat perceptions notwithstanding, do not coincide. At first sight, Russian and EU interests connected to ESDP seem to coincide in the main, considering the EU’s ambitions to obtain a greater role as a political and security player as well as to strengthen its partnership with Russia. In expressing its readiness to support the ESDP, however, Russia is looking to gain certain objectives that do not necessarily correlate with EU interests. To explain the reasons, I apply the comparison between the “modern” and “postmodern” worlds drawn by Robert Cooper. This comparison is useful in that it deals with issues that are identifiable in the policies pursued by the two actors with respect to ESDP.