Science is identifying new food-borne pathogens and understanding their potential for serious consequences. Meanwhile, demand for safer food is growing, as consumers become more affluent, live longer, and better understand the links between diet and health. Additionally, trade in food products is a larger source of supply in may countries as both technical and trade barriers to food trade are reduced, and this can introduce new sources of risk into the food supply. To ensure the safety of the food supply, many governments are mandating the use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in food industries. This paper explores the controversies of mandated imposition of HACCP by examining the economic implications of using HACCP in food safety regulation.