‘Peacekeeping economies’ have not been subjected to much analysis. This is partly, perhaps, because their effects have been assumed to be temporary. In reality, such economies often have impacts on local societies that endure long after peacekeepers have left. This briefing considers the gendered effects of peacekeeping economies in Bosnia, Kosovo, Liberia and Haiti, focussing especially on the sex industry. It then examines the effectiveness of the UN’s efforts to curb sexual exploitation and to promote gender equality through peacekeeping operations. It argues that the UN needs to go beyond policies based on individual responsibility, to consider the wider context in which its operations take place.