During Antiquity, the values associated with wine are symbolic, religious, social and political. In Athens, wine is at the heart of the offerings and the sacrifices, just as tributes, banquets and orgies were. After-wards it becomes "the blood of Christ" and bishops and abbots would become the first wine growers in the medieval city. Gradually, wine becomes widespread as a product of mass consumption. But in spite of the development of plantations, it remains relatively expensive because of low yields, problems of preservation and high taxes. With the qualitative differentiation of the producers, which begins from the XVIIth century, then the successive classifications, wine acquires a market value hierarchically organized at the heart of business, speculation and the ostentatious contemporary signs of consumption.