This paper compares responses to monetary shocks in the EMU countries (in the pre-EMU sample) and in the New Member States (NMS) from Central Europe. The small-sample problem, especially acute for the NMS, is mitigated by using a Bayesian estimation procedure which combines information across countries. A novel identification scheme for small open economies is used. The estimated responses are quite similar across regions, but there is some evidence of more lagged, but ultimately stronger price responses in the NMS economies. This contradicts the common belief that monetary policy is less effective in post-transition economies, because of their lower financial development. NMS also have a probably lower sacrifice ratio, which is consistent with the predictions of both the imperfect information model of Lucas (1973) and the New-Keynesian model of Ball et al. (1988).