The relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation has been widely studied in recent years. Defenders of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis argue that the environmental pressure coming from economic growth is growing at first and as the economy moves on its development stages, the relationship becomes decreasing. In this discussion, this paper aims to analyze the relationship between CO2 emissions, resulting from burning fossil fuels in liquid form, and the Brazilian economic growth, by means of per capita GDP, with a time series beginning at 1903. Additionally, it is discussed the avoided CO2 emissions arising from the Brazilian energy policy adopted from the 1970s to the transport sector. The evidence found indicates that the relationship between the two variables is linearly increasing, not allowing to conclude that there is an EKC for the case in study.