This work will discuss the major challenges facing transition economies restructuring their financial systems to integrate with world financial markets. Discussion will include the particular development of capital markets. Special attention is paid to the example of the Republic of Uzbekistan; the achievements to date and the challenges to come, including the development of securities markets and factors that will influence this. This work commences with a discussion on the importance of financial development on economic growth. The history of Uzbekistan's financial development is presented to clarify and illustrate the present situation. The work continues by highlighting some of the key decisions faced by the transitional economies and, again using the Uzbekistan situation as an example, the causes and effects of implementing such decisions. The work concludes by focusing on the issues surrounding the development of the capital market in Uzbekistan. The last part of the paper is experimental, concentrating on an investigation into the relationship between foreign exchange regimes and market capitalisation based on a thorough analysis of transition economies.