The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some of the advantages of “relative economic backwardness” and some aspects of the “fordist model of growth”. China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s and since the mid-1990s by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of its exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint- ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets.