Using panel data from a three-year study of 727 households, the authors identify the sources of income inequality in rural Pakistan. First, theydecompose total rural income among five sources: agricultural, livestock, rental, nonfarm, and transfer income. This decomposition shows that agricultural income contributes most to inequality in total rural income. Next, they decompose the sources of inequality in agricultural income. This leads to the surprising finding that inequitable ownership of land is not the main source of inequality in agricultural income. Income from returns to labor and crop profits contribute most to this area of inequality. One way to reduce rural income inequality might be to find more ways to narrow the disparities between abilities, perhaps by teaching more managerial and technical skills to agriculturists. According to the authors, policy makers concerned about inequality in rural Pakistan would also be well advised to pay more attention to livestock. Income from livestock apparently decreases the inequalities in income.