Block-based Reversible Fragile Watermarking for 2D Vector Map Authentication
Xiangjun Zhao and
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Nana Wang: School of Computer Science and Technology, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, China
Xiangjun Zhao: School of Computer Science and Technology, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, China
Han Zhang: Computer and Information Engineering Department, Heze University, Heze, China
International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics (IJDCF), 2015, vol. 7, issue 3, 60-80
In this paper, the authors propose a block-based reversible watermarking method for 2D vector map authentication. In the scheme, they divide the features of a vector map into different categories of blocks, calculate an authentication watermark for each block, and embed the watermarks of different blocks using a reversible watermarking method based on virtual coordinates and a fragile watermarking algorithm based on concentric circles. While the block division ensures superior accuracy of tamper localization, the two watermarking methods provide recovery of the original content. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has good invisibility, reversibility and computational complexity, and can accurately locate malicious attacks such as vertex modification/addition/deletion and feature modification/addition/deletion.
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