The Dynamics of Energy Intensity Convergence in the EU-28 Countries
Mehmet Balcilar (),
Firat Emir and
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Firat Emir: Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University
David Roubaud: Montpelier Business School, Montpelier, France
Authors registered in the RePEc Author Service: Muhammad Shahbaz ()
No 15-37, Working Papers from Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Economics
This paper examines the dynamics of the energy intensity convergence in the EU-28 countries using panel data for the period from 1990 to 2016. We use Phillips and Sul’s (PS) (2007) approach to test for the energy intensity convergence and identify convergence clusters. In addition to the EU-28 members, EU-15 and the new EU members joined after 2004 are analysed as distinct groups for the periods 1990–2016, 1990–2004 and 2005–2016. Our results show convergence amongst the EU countries during the full and two subsample periods considered. However, the convergence takes place within clusters and there is no evidence of all members converging to a single club. Indeed, after the expansion of the EU, and depending on the decoupling of energy intensity levels amongst EU countries, convergence became more common and diverse. The study also makes policy recommendations based on the empirical findings.
Keywords: Energy Intensity; Convergence Test; European Union (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: O13 O47 O5 Q52 C22 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-ene, nep-reg and nep-tra
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http://repec.economics.emu.edu.tr/RePEc/emu/wpaper/15-37.pdf First version, 2018 (application/pdf)
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