Working Paper 11-16 - Commuting subsidies in Belgium - Implementation in the PLANET model
BenoÃ®t Laine and
Alex Van Steenbergen
Working Papers from Federal Planning Bureau, Belgium
This paper seeks to quantify the size and traffic effects of commuting subsidies in Belgium. To this end we implement the most recently available data on both the personal income tax treatment of commuting reimbursement and subsidies to rail commuters in the PLANET model. We find that subsidy rates by tend to differ strongly by mode and by type of reimbursement. Commuting by own car is generally subsidized at low levels, if it enjoys any subsidy at all. Commuting by company car, bike and public transport enjoy relatively high levels of subsidization. Policy simulations show the importance of commuting subsidies in steering the modal split. Both the exemptions for commuting reimbursements as well as subsidies for rail commuters moderately steer traffic away from private transport, while also lengthening the average commute.
Keywords: Externalities; Personal income tax and subsidies; Transportation: Demand; Supply and Congestion (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: D62 H24 R41 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
New Economics Papers: this item is included in nep-tre and nep-ure
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Persistent link: https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:fpb:wpaper:1611
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