From marginal relevance, the trade and business relations between Australia and Latin America have grown during the past two decades. A proximate reason is that they diversified to encompass a greater range of manufactures and services. Differences in the business environments of Australia and Latin America remain that are obstacles to further expansion of these relations. The ultimate reason for the growth and diversification of these relations is that Australia and its key business partners in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) experienced the impact of processes of trade liberalisation, market deregulation and structural reform during the past two decades. Australia and these Latin American countries now share common interests in fostering business relations, for which there are opportunities at multilateral, plurilateral and bilateral levels.