This empirical paper investigates an important economic relationships, subject of great interest and currently open to debate: the link between underground employment and unemployment. While the literature is unanimous in considering underground employment and unemployment as strongly connected and interdependent phenomena, the link between existing causality is controversial. Two key results emerge from this analysis. The first shows that the unemployment affects (with positive sign) the underground employment and vice versa. The second demonstrates that the impact of unemployment on underground employment is stronger than the reverse.