In this study, we propose a conceptual model on individual and job-contextual antecedents, and affective and behavioral employee consequences of experienced job challenge and overchallenge. Based on a sample of 511 frontline employee – supervisor dyads, we found that autonomy in the job and outcome control are positively related to experienced job challenge and that internal locus of control, autonomy and behavioral control are negatively related to overchallenge. While challenge shows to have a consistent positive impact on employee affect and behavioral intentions, overchallenge has a consistent negative impact on the same outcome variables. Challenge and overchallenge did however not relate to effectiveness levels as rated by the supervisor. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.