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Global Trends in Gender Equality

Stephanie Seguino ()

Journal of African Development, 2016, vol. 18, issue 1, 1-30

Abstract: This paper assesses country and regional trends in gender inequality since 1990 in three domains: capabilities, livelihoods, and agency. The data offer evidence of substantial improvements in education, a component of the capabilities domain. There has been some modest but uneven progress in the livelihoods domain, particularly with regard to employment. In contrast, there is a reversal in progress towards job integration, as evidenced by a decline in the ratio of the share of women employed in the industrial sector relative to men. Also, global stress in labor markets has reduced men's access to employment in some countries, making the progress to date potentially gender conflictive. Agency, measured as the female share of parliamentary seats, has also made only modest progress. These results suggest the need for an expanded focus beyond just educational equality to livelihoods, where gender gaps are wider than in education and stubbornly persistent.

Keywords: Gender Inequality; domestic health; education; employment (search for similar items in EconPapers)
JEL-codes: I14 I24 J16 (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2016
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