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Review of Hierarchy-of-Effects (Hoe) Models and Higher Education Advertising in Malaysia

Azizul Yadi Yaakop*, Nomahaza Mahadi, Zailin Zainal Ariffin and Siti Sarah Omar
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Azizul Yadi Yaakop*: School of Maritime Business and Management, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
Nomahaza Mahadi: International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
Zailin Zainal Ariffin: Faculty of Defence Studies and Management, National Defence University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Siti Sarah Omar: University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia

The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 2018, vol. 4, issue 11, 212-219

Abstract: The most enduring and controversial models of advertising effectiveness are the Hierarchy-of-effects (HOE) models, which are of particular interest to researchers in marketing and advertising. This paper gives emphasis on the selection of these hierarchical models in the context of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia. The notion of raising awareness and interest, followed by desire and action is very seductive in its simplicity, and provides a clear focus for Higher Education advertising. In light of the criticisms of these models, this conceptual paper compares and contrasts the more important advertising models and reflects on the relevance of these simple models in relations to the advertising focus in HEIs.The authors conclude that HOE models fail to adequately represent the impact of the advertising process on the complex emotional/rational decision-making that takes place when choosing HEIs. Advertising’s impact on the choice process is far more complex: developing brand desire through brand image is an important purpose of advertising. The authors are also in agreement with the notion of an essential understanding of other marketing areas such as brand identity, meaning and reputation of higher education institutions through a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods to communicate effectively with the stakeholders.

Keywords: Advertising effectiveness; Hierarchy-of-effect models; Marketing communication; Brand awareness; Higher education advertising. (search for similar items in EconPapers)
Date: 2018
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