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Push and pull factors in Tunisian internal migration: The role of human capital

Rawaa Laajimi and Julie Le Gallo ()

Growth and Change, 2022, vol. 53, issue 2, 771-799

Abstract: This paper examines the pull and push factors of interregional flows in Tunisia, focusing on the role of differences in human capital. Using data from the 2004 and 2014 Tunisian censuses, we estimate a gravity model augmented with proxies capturing high‐ and low‐skilled level human capital and an original nighttime light proxy for regional GPD. We consider both unemployment rate differential and road distance as multilateral resistance variables, and we add cultural and quality of life variables. We find that the macroeconomic variables are the main determinants of interregional flows. As for human capital, high skilled level acts as a pull factor while low skilled level acts as a restraining factor in the destination regions. Furthermore, non‐economic variables have a significant impact on migration flows: Tunisians leave their origin regions not only in search of job opportunities but also in search of better living conditions.

Date: 2022
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