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Inter‐Group Expenditure Gaps In The Arab Region And Their Determinants: Application To Egypt, Jordan, Palestine And Tunisia

Racha Ramadan, Vladimir Hlasny () and Vito Intini

Review of Income and Wealth, 2018, vol. 64, issue s1, S145-S188

Abstract: Economic inequality across socio‐demographic groups in the Arab region is high and growing. This paper evaluates the differentials in household expenditures across rural/urban areas, female/male‐headed households, non‐educated/educated‐headed households and non‐employed/employed‐headed households, in ten Household Income and Expenditure surveys from four Arab countries: Egypt (2008, 2010 and 2012), Jordan (2006 and 2010), Palestine (2007, 2010 and 2011) and Tunisia (2005 and 2010). Unconditional quantile regressions are used to analyze the differentials across the population distribution and to decompose them by source. Results show that Egypt and Tunisia exhibit relatively high expenditure gaps across rural/urban and non‐educated/educated groups. Expenditure gaps in Jordan and Palestine and those across non‐employed/employed and female/male headed households are more moderate. Overall, education and the return to it, geographic location and household composition play an important role in bringing about, as well as reducing, economic inequality across social groups.

Date: 2018
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